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Navy divers worked inside the damaged ships. Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl Harbor and on the mainland for extensive repair. Intensive salvage operations continued for another year, a total of some 20, man-hours under water.
Arizona and the target ship Utah were too heavily damaged for salvage, though much of their armament and equipment was removed and put to use aboard other vessels. Today, the two hulks remain where they were sunk,  [ unreliable source? Hawaiian time : "The Japanese have attacked Pearl Harbor from the air and all naval and military activities on the island of Oahu, principal American base in the Hawaiian islands. Eastern time. John Charles Daly read the initial report, then switched to London, where Robert Trout ad-libbed on the possible London reaction.
Eastern time and lasted only 21 seconds. Unlike the later practice with major news stories, there were only brief interruptions of scheduled commercial programming. The day after the attack, Roosevelt delivered his famous Infamy Speech to a Joint Session of Congress , calling for a formal declaration of war on the Empire of Japan. Congress obliged his request less than an hour later. The UK actually declared war on Japan nine hours before the U.
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The attack was an initial shock to all the Allies in the Pacific Theater. Further losses compounded the alarming setback. Japan attacked the Philippines hours later because of the time difference, it was December 8 in the Philippines. Only three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk off the coast of Malaya , causing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later to recollect "In all the war I never received a more direct shock.
As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me. Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and naked". Throughout the war, Pearl Harbor was frequently used in American propaganda. One further consequence of the attack on Pearl Harbor and its aftermath notably the Niihau incident was that Japanese American residents and citizens were relocated to nearby Japanese-American internment camps.
Within hours of the attack, hundreds of Japanese American leaders were rounded up and brought to high-security camps such as Sand Island at the mouth of Honolulu harbor and Kilauea Military Camp on the island of Hawaii. The attack also had international consequences. The Canadian province of British Columbia , bordering the Pacific Ocean, had long had a large population of Japanese immigrants and their Japanese Canadian descendants. Pre-war tensions were exacerbated by the Pearl Harbor attack, leading to a reaction from the Government of Canada. On February 24, , Order-in-Council P.
On March 4, regulations under the Act were adopted to evacuate Japanese-Canadians. The Japanese planners had determined that some means was required for rescuing fliers whose aircraft were too badly damaged to return to the carriers. The island of Niihau, only 30 minutes flying time from Pearl Harbor, was designated as the rescue point. The aircraft was further damaged on landing.
Nishikaichi was helped from the wreckage by one of the native Hawaiians, who, aware of the tension between the United States and Japan, took the pilot's maps and other documents. The island's residents had no telephones or radio and were completely unaware of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nishikaichi enlisted the support of three Japanese-American residents in an attempt to recover the documents. During the ensuing struggles, Nishikaichi was killed and a Hawaiian civilian was wounded; one collaborator committed suicide, and his wife and the third collaborator were sent to prison.
The ease with which the local ethnic Japanese residents had apparently gone to the assistance of Nishikaichi was a source of concern for many, and tended to support those who believed that local Japanese could not be trusted. Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by saying, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war. While the attack accomplished its intended objective, it turned out to be largely unnecessary.
Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, who conceived the original plan, the U. Navy had decided as far back as to abandon 'charging' across the Pacific towards the Philippines in response to an outbreak of war in keeping with the evolution of Plan Orange. Fortunately for the United States, the American aircraft carriers were untouched by the Japanese attack; otherwise the Pacific Fleet's ability to conduct offensive operations would have been crippled for a year or more given no diversions from the Atlantic Fleet.
As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U. Navy with no choice but to rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines—the very weapons with which the U. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance. While six of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service, their relatively low speed and high fuel consumption limited their deployment, and they served mainly in shore bombardment roles their only major action being the Battle of Surigao Strait in October A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief that the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.
As a result, Yamamoto and his successors hoarded battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened. The Japanese confidence in their ability to win a quick victory meant that they neglected Pearl Harbor's navy repair yards, oil tank farms, submarine base, and old headquarters building. The survival of the repair shops and fuel depots allowed Pearl Harbor to maintain logistical support to the U.
It was submarines that immobilized the Imperial Japanese Navy's heavy ships and brought Japan's economy to a virtual standstill by crippling the transportation of oil and raw materials: by the end of , import of raw materials was cut to half of what it had been, "to a disastrous ten million tons", while oil import "was almost completely stopped".
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Ever since the Japanese attack, there has been debate as to how and why the United States had been caught unaware, and how much and when American officials knew of Japanese plans and related topics. As early as , Chief of U. Air Service Mason Patrick displayed a concern for military vulnerabilities in the Pacific, having sent Gen. Billy Mitchell on a survey of the Pacific and the East.
At least two naval war games, one in and another in , proved that Pearl was vulnerable to such an attack. Admiral James Richardson was removed from command shortly after protesting President Roosevelt's decision to move the bulk of the Pacific fleet to Pearl Harbor. However, this conspiracy theory is rejected by mainstream historians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on the U. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Hawaiian Islands Campaign. Japanese offensives, — Pacific War.
Main article: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
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See also: Order of battle of the Attack on Pearl Harbor. See also: Japanese war crimes. Army base.
Navy base. Nevada , on fire and down at the bow, attempting to leave the harbor before being deliberately beached.
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West Virginia was sunk by six torpedoes and two bombs during the attack. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Main article: Niihau incident. Main article: Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory.
Main article: Attack on Pearl Harbor in popular culture. There is, however, no doubt that they did know, as did the Japanese. Mitsuo Fuchida about his observations.
Fuchida led the Japanese attack on December 7, Pearl Harbor deep averages 42 feet. But the Japanese borrowed an idea from the British carrier-based torpedo raid on the Italian naval base of Taranto. They fashioned auxiliary wooden tail fins to keep the torpedoes horizontal, so they would dive to only 35 feet, and they added a breakaway "nosecone" of soft wood to cushion the impact with the surface of the water.
Even after the war, however, he received recriminating correspondence from those who despised him for not sacrificing his own life. The Combat Air Patrol over the carriers alternated 18 plane shifts every two hours, with 18 more ready for takeoff on the flight decks and an additional 18 ready on hangar decks. P, killed in action , Harry W. Brown P , Kenneth M.